[ISN] A history, more or less, of hacking

From: mea culpa (jerichot_private)
Date: Mon Sep 21 1998 - 09:06:51 PDT

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    Forwarded From: William Knowles <erehwont_private>
    (September 20, 1998 00:07 a.m. EDT http://www.nandotimes.com)
    Notable dates in the relationship between hackers and authorities:
    1876 -- Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone. 
    1878 -- First report of teen boys kicked off telephone system for pranks. 
    1971 -- John Draper discovers that a toy whistle from a cereal box exactly
    reproduces the tone needed to open a free telephone line. He adopts the
    handle, "Captain Crunch." 
    1977 -- Two computer hobbyists, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, fresh from
    making "blue boxes," the devices used to hack phone company computers,
    produce the Apple computer. 
    1981 -- IBM introduces its version of the personal computer. 
    1983 -- The movie "WarGames," starring Matthew Broderick, is released. 
    1983-1984 -- AT&T is split up, resulting in seven regional Bell operating
    companies and new targets for hackers. 
    1984 -- Congress passes Comprehensive Crime Control Act giving Secret
    Service jurisdiction over credit card and computer fraud. 
    1984 -- Founding of 2600: The Hacker Quarterly, a voice for the hacker
    1985 -- Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link computer conference (WELL) goes
    online; Phrack electronic magazine founded. 
    1986 -- Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and Electronic Communications Privacy
    Act passed. 
    1988 -- Robert Morris crashes 6,000 computers on the Internet with a virus
    program and is fined $10,000. The federal Computer Emergency Response Team
    formed in response. 
    May 7-9, 1990 -- Secret Service coordinates "Operation Sundevil"  raids in
    Cincinnati; Detroit; Miami; Newark, N.J.; Phoenix and Tucson, Ariz.;
    Pittsburgh; Richmond, Va.; and Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, and
    San Jose, Calif. 
    June 1990 -- Cyber-rights group Electronic Frontier Foundation
    March 25-28, 1991 -- The first Computers, Freedom and Privacy conference,
    in San Francisco. 
    1993 -- Masters of Deception members arrested by Secret Service.  All
    plead guilty to computer crimes and conspiracy. 
    Summer 1994 -- Vladimir Levin, a graduate of St. Petersburg
    Tekhnologichesky University, allegedly masterminds a Russian hacker gang
    and steals $10 million from Citibank; arrested in London in 1995. 
    Feb. 15, 1995 -- Kevin Mitnik arrested and accused of stealing 20,000
    valid credit card numbers. He pleads guilty in 1996. 
    Summer 1995 -- "Hackers," the movie, is released. 
    Feb. 28, 1998 -- U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno announces National
    Infrastructure Protection Center. 
    Spring 1998 -- Pentagon computers repeatedly hacked. Israeli teen Ehud
    Tenebaum, also known as "The Analyzer," claims he mentored two California
    teens on how to do it. 
    May 19, 1998 -- Members of L0pht hacker group testify before the Senate,
    warn of serious security weaknesses and claim the ability to shut down the
    Internet in half an hour. 
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